Monday Poster Presentations



Click on the title to open and close the abstract summary

M-1 Dimensions of Color for Artists
David Briggs
Julian Ashton Art School and National Art School, Sydney, Australia

The system of hue, lightness and chroma is the predominant color model employed by painters and is sufficient for describing colors of objects including artists’ paints. The additional perceived color attributes of brightness, colorfulness, saturation and brilliance are much less familiar, but potentially are also very useful to painters for framing and solving problems concerning visual appearance.  

For each of these seven attributes the poster presents (1) a definition consistent with standard technical definitions but adapted or elaborated to be more applicable by painters, (2) diagrams to help illustrate and explain the definition, (3) a short explanation of the relevance of the attribute to painters, and (4) an explanation of each attribute as our way of perceiving a particular physical property of objects or lights,  or rather, that aspect of that physical property that is accessible to us given the limitations of our visual equipment.

M-3 100 Silesian patterns and colours: Project of Decorative Patterns and Sets of Colours inspired by Applied Art of Upper Silesia
Anna Kmita
Academy of Fine Arts, Katowice, Poland

The main objectives of this project: digital documentation of chosen national heritage with regard to ornamentation and colouring, project of patterns and sets of colours inspired by applied art of the region, obtaining of graphic materials of high visual quality, possible to be applied with contemporary media. Most important results of the project:  database of graphic elements, book of patterns and colours including set of patterns inspired by catalogued decorative elements and set of colours inspired by typical combination of colours used in applied art of the region. Created elements (described in NCS, Pantone, CMYK) can be used as elements in many identification projects and be element of visual culture of the region.

M-4 How Interior Colors Communicate the Visual Context of a Re-Purposed Marketplace: An Analysis of Ponce City Market, Atlanta, Georgia
Jain Kwon & Juyeon Kim
University of Georgia, Athens, USA
Soongsil University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

This study discusses how the interior colors of Ponce City Market in Atlanta, GA relate the visual context of the marketplace to the cityscape. The data consisted of the color values of the building elements directly measured using a colorimeter and those shown in photos taken at the market site. The researchers identified and analyzed 1) the color schemes of the cityscape, the interior structures, and the graphic features including the signage; 2) the L*a*b* values and CIELAB color spaces of the individual colors that constitute those color schemes. While the interior color schemes echoed the colors of the cityscape, the contrast among the interior colors appeared greater than the contrast among the cityscape’s colors. Considerable contrasts were found between the primary colors of the interior structures and those of the informative graphic features, which might have helped visitors’ wayfinding. Finally, this study suggests contextual approach to interior color planning.

M-5 Memory Colors and Preferred Colors of Reddish Meat Products
Kevin A.G. Smet*, ESAT/Light&Lighting Laboratory, KU Leuven, Belgium
Inge Roelandts, ESAT/Light&Lighting Laboratory, KU Leuven, Belgium
Kees Teunissen, Philips Lighting, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Simone Poort, Philips Lighting, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Peter Hanselaer, ESAT/Light&Lighting Laboratory, KU Leuven, Belgium

The concept of memory color refers to the color associated with a familiar object in long term memory. In the past, memory colors have been used as an internal reference to assess object color appearance and color quality in color reproduction and color rendering. Recently, they have been applied in studying chromatic adaptation and in defining a new color rendering index (MCRI).

In this paper, the memory color of three types of meat with different degrees of ‘redness’ have been determined. A special illumination box was constructed such that the samples could be illuminated by Red-Green-Blue-Yellow LED modules to change their apparent color. Participants rated the perceived color in terms of memory and attractiveness. The data were modelled using a bivariate Gaussian model. The performance of some commercial light sources used for the illumination of meat could be well predicted by their value as predicted by the model.

M-6 Applying Munsell Color Harmony to Data Visual Analytics
Theresa-Marie Rhyne
Independent Visualization Consultant & Book Author, Durham, North Carolina, USA

We provide specific solutions of the application of Munsell Color Harmony to data visual analytics. We define monochromatic, diad, analogous, complementary, double complementary, and split complementary color harmonies with visual infographic examples. We then provide a detailed discussion of how the concepts of complementary color harmony in the Munsell color space were applied to visualizing the patterns of protein binding in biological visualization. The biological visualization results were developed with the Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute at the University of Utah and presented at the premier conference on data visualization, IEEE VIS. Our preliminary discussions of Munell Color Harmony and their application to biological data have appeared in the Munsell Color Blog.

M-7 Applications of the Munsell Color System in Environmental Color Design
Verena M. Schindler, Yulia A. Griber
Art and Architectural Historian, Zollikon, Switzerland
Smolensk State University, Smolensk, Russia
Co-Chair of the AIC Study Group on Environmental Colour Design

This study examines how the Munsell Color System has been used around the world to support the development of environmental color research. Data for the study were collected from two different sources. Firstly, an online survey of color professionals was carried out at the end of 2017 to gauge their experience with the Munsell Color System. Secondly, the study used a quantitative content analysis of the AIC (Association Internationale de la Couleur) Congress and Meeting Proceedings over a 10-year period (between 2008 and 2017) to investigate the meanings, themes and patterns of how the Munsell Color System is applied in environmental color design. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize findings from the sample. The case study method and detailed analysis of a number of cases employing the Munsell Color System was implemented to reveal the impact of this color system on environmental design on all scales of urban space.

M-9 Exercises of Chromatic Investigation and Analysis on Color Education
Milena Quattrer, Anna Paula, Silva Gouveia
Federal Institute of Rio de Janeiro, Belford Roxo, Brazil
University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil

The teaching practice with regard to color teaching has demonstrated that important concepts involving interdisciplinary issues and basic knowledge of Physics, Chemistry and Biology are generally difficult to understand for Brazilian students. In Brazilian Elementary School and Middle School, color is treated with less importance when compared to other contents of the Art curriculum, which contributes to the perpetuation of the conceptual problems of color education. The practical exercises of investigation and chromatic analysis, based on the Munsell system, have been shown an important pedagogical resource for the teaching basic concepts of color theory. Since, without understanding these concepts there is no way to advance the study of important content for Technical, Undergraduate and Graduate courses in Art and Design, such as color systems and colorimetry.

M-10 Psychophysics in Color Science Education: Two Case Studies
Hao Xiea, Yongmin Park, Olivia Kuzio, Joshua Gallaro, Sara Leary, Adi Robinson, Samuel Morillas, Michael J. Murdoch
Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

A core course in the Program of Color Science (PoCS) at RIT, Computational Vision Science (CVS) provides an introduction to modern computer-based methods for psychophysics. In this poster, we will present two case studies from students’ perspectives: difference thresholds for image noise, and MacAdam-style ellipses equivalent to 5 . These laboratory assignments are great examples of the joint effort of the PoCS students bringing skills from diverse backgrounds to the color science education process. Specifically, two GUIs were developed by students for presenting images or uniform colors, respectively, on a display. The Gaussian noise thresholds were determined using the method of constant stimuli and 14 observers for 8 images with different contents. In the second case, an adaptive staircase algorithm was adopted for examining the equal color differences around 3 color centers at different CCTs. The 7-observer perceptual results are found consistent with the CIEDE2000 predictions of CIE standard observers.

M-11 Human Skin Colour Produced by a Change in Circulatory Conditions: Spectral Reflectance Factor, L*a*b* and Munsell Colour Chart
Yuki Akizuki
University of Toyama, Japan

This research purpose is to define the human skin colour produced by a change in circulatory states. We artificially produced the skin colour which was the most prominent symptom in shock with the distal ischemia portion of healthy subjects, and set three skin colour of circulatory states: healthy, ischemia-shocked, and reperfusion-congested. These skin colours were measured by colorimeter CM-2600d.

As compared with the healthy skin, the shocked skin tended to be more yellowish and to have higher lightness, and the congested skin tended to be more reddish and to have higher saturation and lower lightness.

The spectral reflectance differs among three circulatory states especially within a range of 450-600nm. As the results of L*a*b* under D65, there were significant differences among three circulatory states, age and gender. These 12 skin colour results by typical subjects of each age/gender groups were categorized according to the values of Munsell Colour under D65.

M-12 Color Image Scale: Semantics of Color in Japan
Setsuko Horiguchi, Katsura Iwamatsu
Nippon Color and Design Research Institute Inc., Tokyo, Japan

Since the 1960’s, Shigenobu Kobayashi (1925-2010) and Nippon Color and Design Research Institute Inc. (NCD; founded 1967) have been pursuing the most reliable color system to be used in everyday world. Based on Hue and Tone System, further tests by C.E. Osgood’s semantic differential method using 130 colors were conducted. An in-depth analysis of these results led to the discovery of the three psychological axes of color recognition: Warm-Cool, Soft-Hard, and Clear-Grayish in the latter half of the 1970’s. Utilizing this 3-dimentional model of 3 image scales (single-colors, adjectives, tri-color combinations), NCD expands researches in consumer tastes and lifestyles, and the changing trends. Color Image Scale is now suited to deal with a whole range of human perception, from Design, Texture, Environment, to Senses and Feelings.

M-13 Smartphone Calibration for Crowd-Sourced Determination of the Presence of Cyanobacteria in Water Samples
Katherine Carpenter, Anthony Vodacek, Susan Farnand
Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA
Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY, USA

Current techniques for identifying the presence of cyanobacteria in a given water sample are cumbersome. This project was an attempt to simplify the process by using image capture with smartphones. Experiments were designed to ascertain if it is possible to detect cyanobacteria present in a water sample based on measurements of color and transmission spectra. A colonial and a filamentous variant of cyanobacteria and of green algae were measured and
compared. These measurements were used to create a preliminary customized Color Checker chart for use in identification of cyanobacteria. All four smartphones displayed a linearity in the relationship between the C* values measured by the spectrophotometer vs. the C* values captured by the smartphone cameras for both types of cyanobacteria and for the colonial green algae; the filamentous green algae presented an S-shaped curve when comparing the C* values from the spectrophotometer and cameras.

M-14  Cross-cultural Investigation of the Salience of Perceptual Color Dimensions
Prutha Deshpande, Delwin Lindsey
The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA

Universal tendencies in color naming are thought to be due to a common perceptual representation of color in humans (Berlin & Kay, 1969). However, many languages name a non-standard category that combines hue and lightness/saturation in complex ways (MacLaury, 2007). We examined Somali, to see if its non-standard color naming (Brown & Lindsey, 2016) could be due to differences in the salience of perceptual color dimensions. We compared English and Somali speakers in (1) similarity judgments investigating the scaling of hue differences in comparison to a fixed luminance difference, and (2) color naming. We found remarkable correspondences in English and Somali similarity judgments despite clear differences in color naming, suggesting that differences in their color lexicons cannot be explained by differences in the weighting of hue vs. lightness/saturation dimensions. Conversely, our results also do not support that differences in color lexicons cause differences in the perceptual representation of color space.

M-15  An Adjusted Error Score Calculation for the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test
Tony Esposito
Independent lighting consultant, USA

The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test, a test which measures an individual’s hue discrimination ability, operates with the fundamental assumption that it is administered using a fixed, standard illuminant. This assumption is violated when the testing illuminant is changed—as is common when testing color discrimination ability of an illuminant—which likely causes a reordering of the caps in the test. To ensure that a participant is not falsely penalized for correctly responding to a hue transposition caused by the new testing light source, an adjusted error score is proposed which reconciles light source-induced hue transpositions and participant performance on the test.

M-16 Color Measurement Standards for Reflective e-paper
Dirk Hertel
E Ink Corporation, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA

Color displays are viewed in ambient lighting conditions ranging from indoors to bright sunlight. For emissive displays such as phones or tablets, ambient light reflected by the screen is a disturbance that affects color and readability. Rather than being a disturbance, ambient light is a necessity for viewing e-paper so color measurements must be reflection-based. Recently developed e-paper standards contain color measurement specifications with instructions on characterizing spectral reflection and – if a front light is present – spectral emission for each displayed color. Measurements are then combined with ambient illumination models to predict how display colors would appear in realistic lighting conditions. Although developed for e-paper, this concept can be applied to any type of color display. The poster will detail standard measurement geometries and illumination models, and include examples comparing the ambient color performance of handheld e-paper vs. emissive displays under indoor and daylight viewing conditions.

M-17  A Color Differentiation Model
Esra Kürkçü, Semiha Yilmazer, Sibel Ertez Ural
Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

The purpose of this study is proposing a new kind of a Color Differentiation Model (ColDM) to be used in future research. The color tasks studies were generally based on color discrimination performance analyzed by Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test which assesses just hue differentiation ability. However, chroma and value are as important as hue differences. This study presents to ColDM was designed based on FM-100 and developed regarding chroma and value attributes. ColDM was consisted of three modules; Hue, Chroma, and Value Differentiation. They were used to find out color perception, color differentiation ability and task performance under different CCT, SPD, and CRI of lighting. With the use of ColDM, color perception according to color attributes revealed. The study was conducted with 100 participants in a full-scale office set-up. The results showed that among the color attributes, chroma is the most hardly differentiated and value is the most easily differentiated one.

M-18 A Suprathreshold Color-difference Ellipsoids Hybrid Model for Color-differences
Samuel Morillas, Mark D. Fairchild
Instituto Universitario de Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain
Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

One of the most studied problems in colorimetry is the obtention of contours of equal color-differences around certain color centers. In particular, those related to just noticeable differences (JND) have been thoroughly studied. Using a set of contours related to JNDs, we study how to compute any color difference in any region of the color space. To do so, we develop a fuzzy multi-ellipsoid model using the local color difference formulas associated to each one of the JNDs contours. We see that the performance vary significantly for very small, small, medium and large color differences. Therefore, we also study how to adapt two metric parameters to optimize performance.

M-19 The aid of color on Visuo-spatial Navigation: Elderly in a virtual polyclinic environment
Ozge Kumoglu Suzer, Nilgun Olgunturk
Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

This study was designed to explore the aid of color on visuo-spatial navigation in elders in a virtually simulated polyclinic environment and to compare neutral, warm and cool colored settings to understand different colors’ effects on spatial navigation performance.The study was conducted in three phases; Eligibility tests, Route Replication task and, Picture Classification task, with 90 healthy elders, between the ages of 65 to 80. The findings showed that neutral colored setting affected participants’ visuo-spatial navigation performances negatively compared to warm and cool colored settings. However, there was no difference between warm and cool colored environments. In addition to that, males spent shorter time, made fewer wrong turns, experienced fewer hesitations and travelled shorter distances compared to females when finding the end point.

Because of increasing elderly population, nowadays designing interiors for the elderly becomes a more pressing matter. The findings of this study may provide important clues for both interior designers and environmental psychologists.

M-20 Reflectance Reconstruction using a Multi-illuminant based Multispectral Imaging System
Meiqin Wua, Yu Lin, Joel Trussell, Fumei Wang and Renzo Shamey
Color Science and Imaging Laboratory, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA
Donghua University, Shanghai, China
Electronic and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA

Multispectral imaging systems simultaneously capture the image of an object as well as its spectra (using typically 6-20 wavebands) and can generate highly accurate color measurements in comparison to trichromatic cameras. A multi-illuminant multispectral imaging system consisting of 11 LED light sources (9 with narrow and 2 with a relatively broad bandwidth), a monochromatic camera and a quasi-diffuse illumination chamber was built. To obtain accurate reflectance spectra and colorimetric values, a ColorChecker SG chart (140 patches) was used to train the system and a ColorChecker DC chart (240 patches) was used for testing. The spectra of all color patches were measured, in advance, using a PR670 spectroradiometer (PhotoResearch) for reference. The accuracy of reconstructed spectra of color patches, using the newly developed multi-illuminant system, in terms of colorimetric and spectral values was found to be very good with an average CIEDE00 of 0.58, 0.77 and a maximum of 2.09, 3.22 for training and testing sets, respectively.

M-21 A new Corresponding Dataset based on Memory Matching Method
Yuechen Zhu, Qiyan Zhai, Ming Ronnier Luo
State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
School of Design, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK

An experiment was carried out to accumulate chromatic adaptation data on a display under 5 adapting fields (2849K, 3119K, 4966K, 6902K and 9719K). Four pairs of corresponding colours including unitary and memory colours were formed between data from 6902K and the other CCTs. Twenty observers took part using the memory matching method. The results showed an MCDM value of 5.06 E00 for the inter-observer variation. The new dataset was used to test CAT02 chromatic adaptation transform with different D functions, including Smet’s and Zhai’s together with D = 1. The mean error of predictions were 5.8, 7.5 and 10.3 E00 units respectively. By multiplying 0.25 to the former two D functions, the E00 reduced to about 2 units. In summary, the adaptation is much less incomplete here comparing with those found in the earlier work. This could be due to the use of memory matching method on display under dark surround.

M-22 Color processing in Artists and Non-Artist participants in relation to individually determined Photopigment Opsin Genotypes
Kimberly A. Jameson, Vladimir Bochkob, Kirbi Joea
University of California, Irvine, USA
University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland

Recent research links color perception, artistic representation of naturalistic scenes and photopigment opsin genetics (Jameson, Winkler & Goldfarb 2016, Bochko & Jameson 2016). To explore how genetically-based individual variation in color vision phenotypes relates to practical and artistic uses of color we investigate the accuracy with which participants reproduced Munsell color samples using mixtures from a standard fixed palette of oil paint pigments. Participants consented to three experiments with a task in which 41 Munsell Book of Color singleton target samples were reproduced by way of oil paint pigment mixtures, under three different controlled illumination conditions. Participants varied in photopigment opsin genotype, artistic training, and gender. Genetic algorithm modeling and analyses lend insights concerning the nonuniformity and dimensionality of participant’s color reproduction space. Results suggest color reproductions are impacted by (i) participant’s artistic training, (ii) individual’s photopigment opsin genotype, and (iii) the illuminant under which stimuli were reproduced by painting.