Day 4 — Thursday, June 14 — Industry

Calvin McCamy's Recollections of the Munsell Color System in Industrial Color Technology
Danny Rich

The talk recounts the life-time of work of Calvin McCamy on color technology and his utilization of the Munsell color order system to solve industrially important problems. In his memoir, Mr. McCamy describes how he was constantly called in to contribute to practical application of the Munsell Color system. He was at National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) when the renotation was being derived by the OSA, he was appointed by ANSI to serve on the ISO Committee that tried to raise the Natural Color System to an international standard, he created a popular color lecture titled "The Joy of Color" that always included the description of how Albert H. Munsell developed the system and how it was used in production at the Macbeth Corporation. Later, he was responsible for the ASTM standard D1535 Standard Practice for Specifying Color by the Munsell System, including the development of the first (and likely the last) formula to invert Judd's fifth order polynomial equation mapping Value onto luminance factor.

Cal consulted with the paint lab producing the collections and contributed to the problems encountered when modern synthetic organic pigments were introduced to replace the banned heavy metal pigments. Finally he recounts how he combined his love of photography and image science with the Munsell system and developed the Macbeth Color Checker which is today, the most widely used instrument for color imaging in the world.

Calvin McCamy's career was spread between two venues, The National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C. where he was involved in the metrology of photographic materials and color and later, as head of research and technology for the Macbeth Corporation, a division of the Kollmorgen company and the commercial Munsell Color Paint Lab.

From Munsell Color System To A New Color Psychology System
Setsuko Horiguchi and Katsura Iwamatsu

The founder of Nippon Color and Design Research Institute (NCD), Shigenobu Kobayashi (1925-2010), graduated from Hiroshima College of Technology in 1947, then taught middle-school science while pursuing an MA in Psychology (1954) at Waseda University. He went on to publish several books on psychology, design, and color, and placed twice in Dokuritsu Exhibition, while teaching at various art schools and colleges.

It was with the intent of furthering the research in the psychology of color while creating a viable business model in the field, that Kobayashi founded NCD in 1967. The timing was opportune, for it was a period of rapid economic growth and modernization in Japan immediately after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, when many in the nascent fields of graphics and design were eager to take advantage of the color psychology data provided by NCD. The first project undertaken by NCD was the creation of a 5000-color chart based on Munsell Color System for an auto maker, which inspired Kobayashi and his team to develop a new system based on Munsell Scale, by shifting the focus from Hue towards Tone (combination of Value and Chroma). The basic Color Image Chart encompassing 480 chromatic colors (40 Munsell hues x 12 tones) and 10 neutral colors was finalized in 1969, establishing the framework for NCD’s Hue and Tone System. With further refinements over subsequent decades incorporating C.E. Osgood’s Semantic Differential Method, the current Color Image Scale with Warm-Cool, Soft-Hard and Clear-Grayish axes was born. Representing 130 individual colors, it is a diagnostic model of psychological color space with a wide range of practical applications, from product development and marketing to city planning.

Our presentation will offer an overview of the evolution of Kobayashi’s system, along with actual examples of consumer products and hands-on experience in combining colors for real-life uses.

The Natural Colour System: A Visual Approach to Color
Berit Bergström

The Munsell Color System and the Natural Color System are both scientific systems based, partially or totally, on the visual perception of colours.

This presentation will show the background to the development of the NCS system, how it is used today in design and architecture, and illustrate the different colour attributes of Munsell and NCS.

The NCS system starts from six elementary colours, which are perceived by human beings as being "pure". The four chromatic elementary colours are yellow, red, blue and green, and the two non-chromatic elementary colours are white and black. All other colours can be described in terms of their degree of resemblance to the elementary colours.

The NCS system is a systematic method of denoting and describing colours, and the relationship between them, purely from their perceptual qualities. These are the only properties that can be seen and evaluated with the help of natural sense. Beginning with the elementary colours, I will show how it is possible to construct the three-dimensional descriptive model called the NCS colour space, which includes the whole colour world and makes it possible to describe any conceivable colour percept. 

The Pantone Color System: A Short History
Tom Lianza

The Pantone System has a rich history in the design and printing community. This talk will discuss the historical elements of the development of the Pantone system and its past and current impact on the communities that utilize it.


To Specify a Sunrise: Art, Science and Modern Lighting Design
Wendy Luedtke

For generations of lighting designers, ubiquitous, Pantone®-like systems of filters and gels provided a simple, universal language for talking about color. With the adoption of LED technology, that’s changing. Fixtures have increasingly complex spectral tuning capabilities and characteristics, and control systems allow prolific color customization. How do we reliably and consistently reference color in an additive-mixing world? And how do we help lighting professionals translate these scientific variables and near-infinite color choices into a new artistic vernacular? This session explores the ways in which these ongoing questions are shaping the lighting world.

General Sessions Summary
Dave Wyble

A recap of a week of bridging the science, art and industry of color!