Day 4 — Thursday, June 14 — Industry

Calvin McCamy's Recollections of the Munsell Color System in Industrial Color Technology

The talk recounts the life-time of work of Calvin McCamy on color technology and his utilization of the Munsell color order system to solve industrially important problems. In his memoir, Mr. McCamy describes how he was constantly called in to contribute to practical application of the Munsell Color system. He was at National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) when the renotation was being derived by the OSA, he was appointed by ANSI to serve on the ISO Committee that tried to raise the Natural Color System to an international standard, he created a popular color lecture titled "The Joy of Color" that always included the description of how Albert H. Munsell developed the system and how it was used in production at the Macbeth Corporation. Later, he was responsible for the ASTM standard D1535 Standard Practice for Specifying Color by the Munsell System, including the development of the first (and likely the last) formula to invert Judd's fifth order polynomial equation mapping Value onto luminance factor.

Cal consulted with the paint lab producing the collections and contributed to the problems encountered when modern synthetic organic pigments were introduced to replace the banned heavy metal pigments. Finally he recounts how he combined his love of photography and image science with the Munsell system and developed the Macbeth Color Checker which is today, the most widely used instrument for color imaging in the world.


Dr. Danny Rich obtained his Bachelors degree in Physics from the University of Idaho in 1973. He received a Masters degree in Physics in 1977 from Virginia Polytechnic Institue and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia. His research involved laser optics and its application to light scattering experiments. During his studies at VPI&SU he met Dr. Fred W. Billmeyer, Jr. who convinced him to transfer to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and work toward a Ph.D. in Color Science. In 1980, he completed his program of studies by defending his dissertation entitled, "The Perception of Moderate Color Differences in Surface-Color Space". Has been awarded the Nickerson Service award from the Inter-Society Color Council in 1999, the National Printing Ink Manufacturers award for Technical Achievement in 2008, a Thomas Alva Edison award for innovation by the Research Council of New Jersey in 2008, the Robert F Reed Medal from the Printing Industries of America in 2013, the Mattiello Memorial award from the American Coatings Association in 2015. Dr. Rich is currently the Senior Color Physicist in the Color Research Laboratory of the Sun Chemical Corporation. He has published on all aspects of Color Science and Engineering, including visual perception, instrumentation and mathematical modeling.

Calvin McCamy's career was spread between two venues, The National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C. where he was involved in the metrology of photographic materials and color and later, as head of research and technology for the Macbeth Corporation, a division of the Kollmorgen company and the commercial Munsell Color Paint Lab.

From Munsell Color System To A New Color Psychology System

The founder of Nippon Color and Design Research Institute (NCD), Shigenobu Kobayashi (1925-2010), graduated from Hiroshima College of Technology in 1947, then taught middle-school science while pursuing an MA in Psychology (1954) at Waseda University. He went on to publish several books on psychology, design, and color, and placed twice in Dokuritsu Exhibition, while teaching at various art schools and colleges.

It was with the intent of furthering the research in the psychology of color while creating a viable business model in the field, that Kobayashi founded NCD in 1967. The timing was opportune, for it was a period of rapid economic growth and modernization in Japan immediately after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, when many in the nascent fields of graphics and design were eager to take advantage of the color psychology data provided by NCD. The first project undertaken by NCD was the creation of a 5000-color chart based on Munsell Color System for an auto maker, which inspired Kobayashi and his team to develop a new system based on Munsell Scale, by shifting the focus from Hue towards Tone (combination of Value and Chroma). The basic Color Image Chart encompassing 480 chromatic colors (40 Munsell hues x 12 tones) and 10 neutral colors was finalized in 1969, establishing the framework for NCD’s Hue and Tone System. With further refinements over subsequent decades incorporating C.E. Osgood’s Semantic Differential Method, the current Color Image Scale with Warm-Cool, Soft-Hard and Clear-Grayish axes was born. Representing 130 individual colors, it is a diagnostic model of psychological color space with a wide range of practical applications, from product development and marketing to city planning.

Our presentation will offer an overview of the evolution of Kobayashi’s system, along with actual examples of consumer products and hands-on experience in combining colors for real-life uses.


Setsuko Horiguchi graduated from the department of psychology of Waseda University in Tokyo with degree of Bachelor of Arts in Literature in 1981 and joined Nippon Color & Design Research Institute Inc. in April of 1981. Since then she has worked as a planning manager, consultant, and seminar lecturer in the fields of fashion, product, food, retail, housing, environment.  She is the editor of the biannual Japanese periodical of color trend forecast, "Season Image Color" and co-author of "Basic knowledge of Color Image", Tokyo: David publishing co., 1995. In addition to her work with NCD, she is a member of the Japan Sensory Engineering Association, Part-time lecturer at Kyoei University, Kyoei Gakuen Junior College, Part-time lecturer at the Tokyo Nutrition Foods College, Lecturer at the Nippon Barber Beauty Education Center, and a Landscape Advisor for Taito City of Tokyo.

The Natural Colour System: A Visual Approach to Color

The Munsell Color System and the Natural Color System are both scientific systems based, partially or totally, on the visual perception of colours.

This presentation will show the background to the development of the NCS system, how it is used today in design and architecture, and illustrate the different colour attributes of Munsell and NCS.

The NCS system starts from six elementary colours, which are perceived by human beings as being "pure". The four chromatic elementary colours are yellow, red, blue and green, and the two non-chromatic elementary colours are white and black. All other colours can be described in terms of their degree of resemblance to the elementary colours.

The NCS system is a systematic method of denoting and describing colours, and the relationship between them, purely from their perceptual qualities. These are the only properties that can be seen and evaluated with the help of natural sense. Beginning with the elementary colours, I will show how it is possible to construct the three-dimensional descriptive model called the NCS colour space, which includes the whole colour world and makes it possible to describe any conceivable colour percept. 


Mrs Berit Bergström is a Senior Lecturer for NCS Colour AB in Stockholm, Sweden. As the Managing Director for the NCS Colour Academy between 1991 and 2012, Mrs Bergström has decades of experience giving colour courses and presentations worldwide in NCS on a very high level. She has carried out colour design courses for countless colour professionals and has conducted colour studies at university level worldwide.  Mrs Bergström is the Past President of AIC between 2014 and 2015, and held the Presidency for 2010 to 2013. She was the chairperson of the AIC Study Group on Colour Education between 1998 and 2009. She is currently the secretary of the Swedish Colour Centre Foundation, a member of the TASCII advisory Board, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and member of the Advisory Board for Color Centre and Informatics at the Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan.

The Pantone Color System: A Short History

The Pantone System has a rich history in the design and printing community. This talk will discuss the historical elements of the development of the Pantone system and its past and current impact on the communities that utilize it.


Tom Lianza is currently President and CTO of Sequel Color Science and Instrumentation (SequelCSI). His work focuses on color sensing systems and manufacture of display systems. He specializes in the design of color measurement instrumentation.

To Specify a Sunrise: Art, Science and Modern Lighting Design

For generations of lighting designers, ubiquitous, Pantone®-like systems of filters and gels provided a simple, universal language for talking about color. With the adoption of LED technology, that’s changing. Fixtures have increasingly complex spectral tuning capabilities and characteristics, and control systems allow prolific color customization. How do we reliably and consistently reference color in an additive-mixing world? And how do we help lighting professionals translate these scientific variables and near-infinite color choices into a new artistic vernacular? This session explores the ways in which these ongoing questions are shaping the lighting world.


Wendy Luedtke is the product technology specialist for color at ETC and is a member of its Advance Research Group (ARG). She is the co-chair of the Color Committee for the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America and a member of the ESTA-TSP Photometrics Working Group, the CIE-USNC Executive Committee, and United Scenic Artists Local 829. Previously, she was the product manager for color and lighting at Rosco Laboratories, Inc. Ms. Luedtke has more than 15 years of experience designing lighting for theater, live entertainment, corporate events, and architectural projects. She holds a BFA in Technical Production from New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts, where she later served for more than a decade as an adjunct instructor.

General Sessions Summary

A recap of a week of bridging the science, art and industry of color!


David R. Wyble is president and founder of Avian Rochester, LLC. Since 2011, Avian Rochester has been delivering color standards; traditional and custom measurements; and consulting services to the color industry. Prior to founding Avian Rochester, Wyble was a color scientist within the Munsell Color Science Laboratory, at the Rochester Institute of Technology, and before that a Member of Research & Technology Staff at Xerox Corp. He holds a BS in Computer Science and MS and PhD degrees in Color Science from RIT and Chiba University, respectively.